The tittle says it all, Happy Centennial to Boeing. That truly is an impressive feat to have changed the world of aviation for one hundred years. Boeing has produced many memorable and important aircraft since 1916. One of my favorite is, you guessed it, the B-17 Flying Fortress. Probably one of the largest and most well recognized of Boeing achievements, used heavily throughout WWII, but a favorite of mine nonetheless. This particular B-17 flies down in Mesa, AZ at the CAF Arizona Airbase.
Well it kind of goes with yesterdays post but it certainly takes up a lot of time and thus finding ways to being faster when it comes to image processing is essential. After every event I have a process of getting images edited, filed and finished so that they get out to the hands of the clients by the time they need them. The rest are finished later for my own use. Now everything I finish is done with Adobe Camera Raw and then whatever I can’t do in ACR, which isn’t much these days, is finished in Photoshop. Then of course there are the images that I set aside for a later time because they aren’t real important at the time but at some point they may be useful. On those rainy grey sky days these images often come out and get finished. Now whether or not they end up in my gallery is another blog post.
There is one aircraft whose silhouette when seen flying is so easily recognizable that it brings out a feeling of freedom to anyone that witnesses it. It is one of the most iconic aircraft of WWII in part because hundreds of them took to the skies during the bombing campaign in Europe and the Mediterranean. Needless to say I will not be able to write everything there is to write in a single blog post about this plane. For those that haven’t guessed yet or for those who haven’t looked ahead at the photograph, then the plane I am talking about is the B-17 Flying Fortress. Today only a handful of flying examples exist of the once 12,000 bombers built. They can be seen around the country at various museums and airshows as one of the highlights of the event. With an impressive wingspan of 103ft 9in and a length of 74ft 4in the B-17 stands alone as one of the largest bombers built during WWII.
The B-17 was a bomber built on the call of the United States Army Air Force for a new high altitude precision bomber. Boeing initially lost the contract in the 1930’s due to the prototype crashing but because the B-17 outperformed it’s competitors and order was placed for thirteen more planes. On July 28th 1935 the first model 299, preclude to the B-17, flew and Richard Williams a reporter for the Seattle Times coined the phrase flying fortress which Boeing instinctively trademarked. The model 299 was the first aircraft in the long line of changes to be made in creating the B-17. While originally built with five 0.30 caliber machine guns, a 4,800lb bomb load, and powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 “Hornet” radial engines, the model was a leap forward in heavy bomber engineering. In August 1935 it flew from Seattle to Wright Field in nine hours and 3 minutes at a cruising speed of 252mph, way ahead of the competition. While the model 299 crashed due to pilot error, the USAAC was impressed and purchased more of the then known YB-17.
The thirteen YB-17’s were upgraded with four Wright R-1820-39 Cyclone engines instead of the Pratt and Whitneys. Many other upgrades were also made including a checklist to before takeoff in order to prevent any further accidents like the ones involving model 299. The thirteen YB-17’s were delivered to various branches throughout the east coast for testing as well as several places on the west coast. One mission of three B-17’s were lead by lead navigator Lieutenant Curtis LeMay to photograph the ocean liner Rex, 610 miles off the shore in the Atlantic. It was huge success and made many papers. Opposition of the B-17B faded and it slowly was being purchased from 1937 onward. 155 were in Army service between January 1937 and November 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor everything changed and orders were being placed with rapid succession. By the end of WWII the B-17 was the most produced heavy aircraft under allied control.
The Flying Fortress was known for many things, it’s ruggedness, it’s firepower and it’s reliability. The plane slowly evolved throughout the war in Europe but the mission never did. Everyone that went up in a crew on a B-17 knew that there mission was to bomb the enemies supplies shortening the war effort. Many howling missions were had over France, Belgium, Austria, Romania, Italy, Japan and of course Germany. Everything from ball bearing factories, to tank factories, aircraft assembly lines, railway yards, marshaling yards, oil refineries and more were bombed in an effort to shorten the length of the war. Seen here is a mustang flying cover for his big buddy while the Fortress is on route to his mission with his Little Friend cover. Over the course of the evolution of the bombing campaign, came the evolution of tactics. At first flights were held close enough to Britain that Spitfires, P-47’s and P-38 Lightnings could provide cover for the B-17’s. However, as the bombers moved inward towards Germany and the range got further and further away from home bases a new type of aircraft had to be developed to provide top cover. The Mustang was the answer. I mention this because of the significance these two planes played together. A post on the mustang will have to wait till later however.
The B-17 went through a series of stages and like any new weapon there were disagreements on how to use it. The USAAC under General Henry Hap Arnold was determined to prove that precision daylight bombing was the only way to win. British Royal Air Force flew night time bombing campaigns and for several months early on in the war B-17’s were used in some of those missions being flown out of bases in England. After many months of experimenting and seeing little result to industrial works the USAAC decided to suspend any further night raids with the B-17. The fight for the B-17 would go on for the rest of the war between the RAF and USAAC over which use of the plane was better. The Eighth Air Force based out of England and commanded By General Ira C Eaker went from less then a hundred B-17’s to over a thousand during the course of the war. He helped to bring together the various groups, squadrons and personnel to make it what it was. During this time the 15th Air Force based in Italy and commanded by Jimmy Doolittle was established in 1943. It’s purpose was to bomb oil refineries and other industrial targets in southern occupied axis countries. In January 1944 until the end of the war Doolitle was put in command of the Eight Air Force with one goal, to attain air superiority. By this time a sizable blow had already been delivered but Doolittle’s change of orders for all fighters to go after fighters and not stick with the bombers changed many things from that point on. During the this period of transition a new structuring was made with the VIII Bomber Command, VIII Fighter Command and VIII Air Support Command along with the Ninth Air Force were brought together and formed the United States Strategic Air Force. General Carl Toey Spaatz was in command. Although this never changed the mission of the B-17 it did changes in how the plane would operate.
The B-17 wasn’t just a plane but a home to many young men. Ten men would fly in various positions throughout the plane in extreme cold temperatures and under severe conditions. Everything from flak, to fighters to seeing other planes go down had to be endured when trying to complete a mission from England to occupied Europe. One way moral was increased was by giving an assentive for crew members that if they were to complete 25 missions they could go home. That was later upped to 30 mission as the the war was getting closer to the end. This had little effect on the men as most knew that the life expectancy in those early years was not even half the number of required missions. During the first couple of years of the bombing campaign the stakes were high and so were the mortality rates. The bravery that these men showed to climb back into the same plane over and over again was extraordinary. Many great books, films and articles have been written by the survivors of these missions. I highly recommend going out and purchasing at least one. For now this post will have to do but rest assured more is to come.
Have you ever had one of those mornings where you hear something or see something and it just sparks a creative reaction? Well that happened to me over the weekend. Like most of the rest of the country I spent a good part of my weekend watching the game which led to more computer time then shooting. Well before the game I was working on a couple of projects and cruising around Netflix I found one of the old classics, Twelve O’Clock High. This is one of the classic WWII aviation films and while it is taken from true events, it is kind of amazing how much detail went into the film.
The film is based on the 918th squadron of the USAAF 8th Air Force based out of Archbury, England. The squadron is group of unmotivated men that lack in leadership and the story follows the change in leadership to reform the men of the “Hard Luck Squadron” into something great. In reality this is bits and pieces taken from several groups in the 8th, starting with the 306th squadron, which the movie is based off of, and people like Colonel Frank Armstrong, Maj. Gen Ira Eaker, and Second Lieutenant John Morgan. This is in no way to diagnose or decrypt the movie merely it got me thinking about today.
The film got me thinking about how much went into creating not a historical retelling of events, since many of the names and places were compiled from multiple events throughout the operational history of the 8th Air Force, but of the emotional drama and strength it took for the boys to do what they did. Todays generation doesn’t know how to really understand or can relate to such tenacity and courage that they under went. I often wonder, as many do, how long these planes will keep flying? As a photographer we spend our time trying to capture history before it fades away. I wonder if future generations will look back at our photographs and feel the same inspiration that a movie made 66 years ago will or will it be just another photograph added on to the millions already taken?
While the B-17 Flying Fortress was one of the most iconic aircraft in the European theater, being seen later in the war as mass droves flying across the skies, they were actually used in all theaters including North Africa, Italy, China and the Pacific. Skipping forward a year, in November of 1942 the Japanese established an airstrip on New Georgia in a place called Munda. Munda was the largest settlement on the island and would be used as a stepping stone into Guadalcanal which at this point had American troops on the ground fighting for the island. American intelligence discovered planes on New Georgia on December 3rd and on December 9th the first raid of B-17’s bombarded the airfield.
New Georgia was used for a year by Japan as an airstrip to attack targets of opportunity against Allied Aircraft, airfields and naval vessels. The Japanese believed they couldn’t hold the Solomon islands once allies held ground at Guadalcanal. They knew eventually they would attack Bougainville and Rabual and installed a ring of defensive measures throughout the islands to hold back allied advance for as long as possible. Allies came up with Operation Cartwheel to capture enemy controlled islands from Gaudalcanal to Rabual. The New Georgia Campaign lasted from June till August 1943. Once the island was captured it was rebuilt as an Allied Airfield.
There are a lot of famous people in the world and most of the time it is that one thing that they did to become famous that we all know about and nothing else. Well sorry to say this was somewhat the case when I started reading this book. Robert Morgan was captain of a plane that most people have heard of, the Memphis Belle. This plane and it’s crew were the first ones to complete the 25 required combat missions in World War II in order to go home. The 25 missions was a change in policy given as a rewarded to flight crews that flew in the European theater. The hitch with it was that not many crews were able to survive that many missions early in the war. These guys were the first and became heroes for doing so. They were not the last.
Robert Morgan lead one heck of a life. From growing up in North Carolina, to flying 25 missions over Europe only to return home for a few months before reenlisting in the Pacific to fly B-29’s against Japan where he flew 26 more missions! I’m usually not big on memoirs just because every memoir has it’s own unique writing style, some more technical then others, and it’s own personal message. The conflict I have with this is it’s hard to judge which ones are good and which ones aren’t. This one is a good read for anyone.
The whole theme of this years show was solute to the Mighty Eighth. The Eighth Air Force based out of several bases throughout England were responsible for breaking German manufacturing throughout WWII. The Eighth, although not the first to commit to daylight bombing operations, were the first to make daylight bombing raids effective. The British had tried daylight bombing and found that the losses were too great for the reward. With the need to keep planes in the sky over the enemy the British switched to night time bombing raids. Many considered this to be the best way to fight for night time bombing greatly reduced the risk for the bombers as they did not have to deal with enemy fighters. However, accuracy dropped during such raids so the USAAF, through much debate, stuck to daylight bombing. The main aircraft for such roles was the B-17 Flying Fortress.
You can’t have a solute to the Eighth without these big birds and as luck would have it two showed. The B-17G Flying Fortress Sentimental Journey out of CAF Airbase Arizona and the B-17G Flying Fortress Fuddy Duddy out of Lyon Air Museum were at the Planes of Fame for the Airshow. Both days included a time slot where planes from the European theater flew. Besides the B-17’s, P-51’s, P-47’s, a P-63, a P-40 and even a Focke Wulf were up in the sky at once. It was pretty darn impressive to see how many planes were up in the sky. In total 52 warbirds were at the show.
All of this was shot with a handheld D4, 200-400 VR and a SunSniper Strap. One thing to really notice and watch for when photographing planes with polished aluminum fuselages is how the light changes on such a surface and where the shadows are. Both of these planes have a polished fuselage and during the panning of the plane there was a time when you could see the light not curve around the plane but streaked across it which wasn’t as pleasant. When the skies are filled with planes and you don’t want to waste an opportunity training your eyes to know when to click and when not to is can really make a difference.
The trip is over, the images are filed and the stories are sitting in the back of your mind ready to be written down. What stands in your way but all those images that need to be processed. Oh that time consuming task of getting through thousands of images only for them to then sit in a folder as you try and make that sale. It’s a pain in the butt chore but it’s a pretty darn important one. When you’re working in a field that mostly takes place between Spring and Fall, which is especially true when living in a state that snows a lot, there tends to be a bit of down time. It’s great being able to chase those winter blizzards and fresh snow, but it also provides lots of time to work on images and write new articles. We all have to find time to get through our projects, not only is it good to progress forward but also to just feel the accomplishment of getting something done.
A rather powerful title I realize but when you hear my reason why it will make sense. The best kind of background is one that needs no finishing and tells a story so well that subject may not even be there. When it comes to work with planes thus becomes so important that Dad and I actually search more for the backgrounds than we do the planes. It’s so hard to find an airport with power lines, houses or other stuff in the background cluttering up the story.
One of the best elements for a background is mother natural herself. Fog can be the best camouflage you can ask for when it comes to working with planes. Not only does it do the heavy lifting for you but it also can bring out some amazing colors. The only catch is you have to get up early before the ground heats up in order to catch those foggy mornings.
I really couldn’t think of anything useful to talk about today so I thought I would just have some fun. What better way to have fun then to play in some puddles!? I did it when I was a kid, I still do. Heck even this B-17 likes to. Sure it’s a little more tucked in with tarps over its cowlings but it’s out there. Only difference is, it’s reflection turned out better then mine.